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Periodization and chronology of the history of Ancient Rome.

Periodization of the history of Ancient Rome

VIII-VI centuries BC The most ancient history of Italy. Greek colonies in southern Italy. Etruscan society and State. The royal period in Rome.
VI-III centuries BC Early class society. The struggle of the Plebeians with the Patricians. Rome’s conquest of Italy (early Republic).
II-I centuries BC The system of classical slavery in Italy. Creation of the Roman Mediterranean Power (later Republic).
I-II centuries AD The heyday of the ancient Mediterranean civilization. The Early Roman Empire (principate).
III centuries A.D. General crisis of ancient civilization. The threat of the collapse of the Mediterranean Roman Empire.
IV-V centuries AD Formation of protofeudal relations. Late Roman Empire (dominat).


Chronological table

754-753 BC Traditional date of foundation of the city of Rome.
VIII-VI centuries BC The royal period of Roman history.
VII century BC The emergence of Latin writinAD
Mid-sixth century BC The reform of the Roman social system, carried out by King Servius Tullius.
Ca. 524 BC Defeat of the Etruscans in a naval battle with the Greeks off the coast of Campania.

Roman Republic era (509-30 BC)

494 BC The traditional date of the first removal of the Plebeians to the “Sacred Mountain”. Establishment of the People’s tribunate.
451-450 BC Decemvir Commission. “Laws of the XII tables”.
449 BC Repeated removal of the Plebeians to the “Sacred Mountain”. The Laws of Valerius and Horace on the rights of Roman citizenship.
445 BC The Law of Tribune Canuleius on marriages.
444 BC Introduction of the post of military tribunes with consular authority.
443 BC Establishment of the position of censors.
406-396 BC The third (last) Roman war with the Etruscan city of Veii.
390 or 387 BC. Invasion of the Celts (Gauls) in Latium. Temporary capture of the city of Rome.
367 BC Laws of the Tribunes of the People Licinius and Sextius.
356 BC The first Plebeian dictator.
351 BC The first censor of the Plebeians.
340-338 BC Roman war with Latin allies. Establishment of Roman rule in Latium.
327-304 BC The second war of the Romans with the Samnites.
326 BC The law of the Tribune Petelius prohibiting the conversion of Roman citizens into debt slaves.
312 BC The censorship of Appius Claudius.
300 BC The Law of Tribunes of Ogulniev.
298-290 BC The third Roman-Samnite War.
287 BC The law of the dictator Hortensius on equating the decisions of the Plebeian assemblies with the laws (ending the struggle of the Plebeians with the patricians).
280-275 BC War of the Romans with the Epirus king Pyrrhus.
264-241 BC 1st Punic War.
253-184 BC Years of life-Titus Maccius Plautus, Roman playwright.
239-169 BC. Years of life-Ennius, Roman poet.
234-149 BC Years of life — Marcus Porcius Cato the Elder, Roman soldier, statesman.
232 BC Gaius Flaminius ‘ Agricultural legislation.
229-228 BC Rome’s first war with the Illyrians. The beginning of Roman expansion in the Balkan Peninsula.
223-222 BC Gaius Flaminius ‘ campaign in Northern Italy. Roman subjugation of the Gauls in the Po Valley.
219 BC The second war of the Romans with the Illyrians.
218-201 BC 2nd Punic War.
218 BC Hannibal’s Carthaginian army crossing the Alps. Battle of the Ticine and Trebia rivers.
217 BC Battle of Lake Trasimene.
216 BC The Battle of Cannes.
215-205 BC Macedonian War with Rome (First Macedonian War).
211 BC Hannibal’s army under the walls of the city of Rome. Capture of the cities of Capua and Syracuse by Roman troops.
207 BC The Battle of Metaurus. The death of Hasdrubal’s army.
204 BC The landing of Scipio’s Roman army in Africa.
202 BC Battle of Zama.
Ca. 201-120 BC Years of life-Polybius, historian.
200-197 BC The Second War between Rome and Macedonia.
197 BC Battle of Kinoskefaly.
195-179 BC Roman wars of conquest in the Iberian Peninsula.
192-188 BC Rome’s war with King Antiochus III.
190 BC Battle of Magnesia.
Circa 190-159 BC Years of life-Publius Terentius Afr, Roman playwright.
C. 185 BC Slave revolt in Apulia.
C. 180-100 BC Gaius Lucilius, Roman satirist.
171-168 BC Rome’s Third War with Macedonia.
168 BC Battle of Pydna. The destruction of the Kingdom of Macedon.
154-139 BC The struggle of the Lusitanian tribes led by Viriatus against the Roman conquerors.
149-148 BC The uprising in Macedonia. False philipp.
149-146 BC The 3rd Punic War.
146 BC The destruction of Carthage and Corinth by the Romans. Formation of the Roman provinces of Africa and Achaia.
138-133 BC The Numantine War.
138-132 BC The first slave revolt on the island of Sicily.
133 BC Tribunate of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus.
132-129 BC The Revolt of Aristonicus.
123-122 BC Tribunate and legislative activity of Gaius Sempronius Gracchus.
116-27 BC Years of life-Terentius Varro, Roman writer.
113-101 BC The war of the Romans with the Cimbri and Teutons.
111-105 BC The Yugurta War.
111 BC The Agrarian Law of Spurius Thorius.
111 BC Military and political reforms of Gaius Marius.
106-43 BC Years of life-Marcus Tullius Cicero, Roman statesman and writer.
104-101 BC The second slave revolt on the island of Sicily.
102 BC Battle of Aquae Sextii.
101 BC The Battle of Vercelles.
103-100 BC Speech of the Roman Democrats, led by Apuleius Saturninus.
100-44 BC Years of life-Gaius Julius Caesar, Roman soldier and statesman.
C. 98-c. 54 BC Years of life-Titus Lucretius Carus, Roman philosopher and poet.
91 BC Tribunate of Marcus Livius Drusus.
91-88 BC The Allied War in Italy.
89-84 BC Rome’s first war with King Mithridates VI of Pontus.
87-82 BC The domination of Rome by the supporters of Marius.
C. 87-c. 54 BC Years of life-Gaius Valerius Catullus, poet.
83-82 BC Civil War in Italy and Rome.
82-79 BC The dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
80-72 BC The struggle of Sertorius against the Sullans.
78-77 BC The struggle of Sertorius against the Sullans.
74-71 BC A slave revolt led by Spartacus.
74-63 BC Rome’s Third War with King Mithridates VI of Pontus.
70-19 BC Years of life-Publius Virgil Maron, poet.
70 BC Repeal of the Sullan Constitution.
67 BC The Law of Gabinius. Pompey’s fight with pirates.
66-62 BC Eastern campaigns of Gnaeus Pompey.
65-8 BC Years of life-Quintus Horace Flaccus, poet.
64-63 BC The struggle over the agrarian bill tribune Servilia Rulla.
63-62 BC The conspiracy of Sergius Catilina.
63 BC-AD 14 Years of life-Gaius Octavius (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian-Augustus), Roman statesman.
60-53 BC The first triumvirate.
59 BC – 17 AD Years of life-Titus Livy, historian.
58-50 BC Julius Caesar’s war in Gaul.
56 BC Meeting of the triumvirs in Luka.
53 BC The Battle of Carrhae. Defeat of the Roman army.
49-45 BC Civil war between Julius Caesar and his opponents.
48 BC The Battle of Pharsalus. The death of Gnaeus Pompey.
48-47 BC The Alexandrian War.
43-36 BC The second triumvirate.
43 BC The Mutin War. Conclusion of the second triumvirate.
43 BC-17 AD Years of life-Publius Ovid Nason, poet.
42 BC Battle of Philippi. Defeat of the Republicans.
41-40 BC The Peruzino War.
36 BC The campaign of Mark Antony against the Parthians. Octavian’s destruction of Sextus Pompey’s rule on the island of Sicily.
31 BC Battle of Cape Aktion. Octavian’s victory.
30 BC Octavian’s capture of Alexandria. The deaths of Mark Antony and Cleopatra.

Roman Empire Era (30 BC-476 AD)

30 BC-14 AD Sole rule of Octavian Augustus — the first Roman emperor.
27 BC Legal registration of Octavian’s power and obtaining the title of Augustus.
19 BC Completion of the Roman conquest of Spain.
16-15 BC The conquest of Noricum and Raetia.
12-9 BC The conquest of Pannonia. The Roman invasion of Germany.
C. 4 BC-65 AD Seneca the Younger, philosopher.
2 BC The Law of Fufia-Koninii on the restriction of the release of slaves to freedom under wills.
4 AD New Elijah-Senthya law restricting the release of slaves to freedom.
6-9 AD Uprising in Dalmatia and Pannonia.
9 AD Battle of the Teutoburg forest.
10 AD A law for the execution of all slaves if one of them kills the master.
14-68 AD The Julius-Claudian dynasty.
14-37 AD The Principate of Tiberius.
14 AD Mutinies of the Pannonian and German legions.
17-24 AD Revolt in Numidia under the leadership of Tacfarinatus.
21 AD Revolt in Gaul and Thrace.
23-79. Years of life-Pliny Secundus the Elder, Roman scholar.
24 AD Slave unrest in Southern Italy.
37-41 AD Principate of Gaius Caesar (Caligula).
37-approx. 100 AD Years of life – Josephus, Jewish historian.
39-65 AD Years of life-Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, Roman poet.
41-54 AD The Principate of Claudius.
42 AD Attempted uprising in Illyricum to restore the Republic.
42 AD Completion of the conquest of Mauritania.
43 AD Claudius ‘ campaign in Britain and the Roman conquest of the southern part of the country.
42— approx. 102 Years of life-Marcus Valerius Martial, Roman poet.
Ca. 46 – ca. 126 Years of life-Plutarch, Greek-Roman writer and historian.
54-68 AD The Principate of Nero.
Ca. 58 – after 117 Years of life-Cornelius Tacitus, historian.
60 AD The British Rebellion.
62-114 AD Years of life-Pliny the Younger, writer.
64 AD The fire of Rome.
66-73 AD The revolt in Judea.
68 AD Revolt in Gaul. The death of Nero.
68-69 AD Civil war in the Empire.
69-96 AD The Flavian dynasty.
69-79 AD The Principate of Vespasian Flavius.
69-71 AD The Batavian revolt under the leadership of Civilis.
70 AD Capture and defeat of Jerusalem by Roman troops.
73 AD Vespasian’s qualification. Changing the composition of the Roman Senate.
Ca. 70-160 AD Years of life-Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, Roman writer.
79-81. Principate of Titus Flavius.
79 AD Eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The destruction of the cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii.
80 AD Opening of the Colosseum.
81 -96 AD Principate of Domitian Flavius.
Ca. mid-90 — ca. mid-170 Years of life-Appian, historian.
96-192 AD The reign of the Antonine emperors.
96-98 AD Principate Nerves.
98-117 AD The principate of Trajan.
Approx. 90 – 168 AD Years of life-Claudius Ptolemy, astronomer and geographer.
101-106 AD The conquest of Dacia.
114-117 AD The war of the Romans with the Armenians and Parthians.
117-138 AD The reign of the Emperor Hadrian.
Approx. 120-180 AD Years of life-Lucian of Samosat, satirical writer.
Approx. 124-approx. 180 years old. Years of life-Apuleius, writer.
132-135 AD Revolt in Judea under the leadership of Simon Bar Kokhba.
138-161 AD The reign of Emperor Antoninus Pius.
161-180 AD The reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
161-165 AD The Roman-Parthian War.
167-180 AD Wars of the Romans with the Marcomanni.
174-175 AD The Bucolic revolt in Northern Egypt.
180-192 AD The reign of the Emperor Commodus.
193-197 AD Civil wars in the Roman Empire. Competition for the imperial throne.
193-235 AD The reign of the emperors of the Northern dynasty.
193-211 AD The reign of Septimius Severus.
198 AD Temporary capture and looting of the cities of the Two Rivers by the Romans (Seleucia, Babylon, Ctesiphon).
211-217 AD The reign of Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla).
212 AD Edict of Caracalla granting Roman citizenship rights to the majority of the free population of the provinces.
222-235 AD The reign of Alexander the North.
226 AD The fall of the Parthian Arsacid dynasty. Establishment of the Persian Sasanian dynasty.
235-284. Political crisis of the Roman Empire. The era of “soldier” emperors.
249-251 AD The reign of the Emperor Decius. Prohibition of Christianity and persecution of Christians throughout the Roman Empire.
260 AD Defeat of the Roman army by the Persians. The capture of the Emperor Valerian.
253-268 AD The reign of the Emperor Gallienus (until 260, together with Valerian). The invasion of barbarian tribes within the Empire.
270-275 AD The reign of the Emperor Aurelian. Restoring the political unity of the Roman Empire.
280’s. Revolt of the lower strata of Gaul — “bagaudov”.
284-305 AD The reign of the Emperor Diocletian.
293 AD New system of governance of the Roman Empire – “tetrarchy”.
301 AD Monetary reform. Edict on prices.
303-304 AD Edicts banning Christianity.
306-337 AD The reign of Emperor Constantine.
313 AD The Edict of Milan on Religious Toleration.
316 AD Edict on the attachment of curials to the curia of cities.
325 AD The Council of Nicaea. The transformation of Christianity into the state religion of the Roman Empire.
332 AD Edict on the perpetual attachment of columns to their plots.
Ca. 330-400 AD Years of life-Ammianus Marcellinus, historian.
354-430 AD Years of life-Augustine, Christian writer.
360-363 AD The reign of the Emperor Julian. An attempt to restore paganism.
378 AD Battle of Adrianople.
379-395 AD The reign of Theodosius I.
393 AD Prohibition of the Olympic Games, destruction of pagan temples.
395 AD Death of Theodosius I. The final division of the Empire into Western and Eastern (Byzantium).
395-423 AD The reign of the Emperor Honorius.
410 AD Capture and defeat of the city of Rome by the Goths.
418 AD Formation of the barbarian kingdom of the Visigoths in Aquitaine.
425-455 AD The reign of Emperor Valentinian III.
429 AD Vandal takeover of Africa. Formation of the Vandal kingdom.
451 AD Defeat of the Huns in the battle of Catalunya fields.
455 AD The destruction of Rome by vandals.
476 AD The deposition of Romulus Augustulus. Traditional date of the fall of the Roman Empire.

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